What is the risk of HIV transmission after sexual exposure?
The per-contact risk of HIV transmission from sexual exposure varies according to the nature of the exposure. The estimated risks are 1 to 30% with receptive anal intercourse, 0.1 to 10.0% with insertive anal intercourse and receptive vaginal intercourse, and 0.1 to 1.0% with insertive vaginal intercourse. As compared with other forms of intercourse, oral intercourse is considered to pose a lower risk of HIV transmission, although good risk estimates are lacking. The risks of sexual transmission are difficult to quantify; the wide ranges reported for the risks of per-contact transmission derive from observational studies and are influenced by many factors, including the presence or absence of concomitant genital ulcer disease, other disease states, and cervical or anal dysplasia; circumcision status; the viral load in the genital compartment; and the degree of viral virulence.