Steroids are indicated in paediatric intensive care as anti-inflammatory drugs or for substitutive treatment. During septic shock, the incidence of adrenal insufficiency (AI) varies between 18 à 52%, depending on the relative or absolute nature of the AI. Contrary to adults, for whom long courses of low doses of corticosteroids were shown to reduce mortality and increased shock reversibility, particularly in those with a negative synacthene test, no study provided sufficient evidence to show a benefit of steroids in terms of outcome in children with septic shock. In neonates, AI occurs frequently after cardiac surgery and the administration of steroids can improve haemodynamic condition. The recommended dose of hydrocortisone during septic shock or after cardiac surgery is 30 to 100 mg/m2/d. Dexamethasone is efficient to reduce postextubation stridor in children and neonate and the rate of reintubations in neonate. During croup, oral or parenteral steroids reduce clinical symptoms. Dexamethasone also reduces the incidence of severe chronic lung disease and the duration of tracheal intubation in premature infants. However the high incidence of side effects, particularly on the central nervous system, makes steroids currently not recommended for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At last, steroids are indicated for severe asthma and for bacterial meningitis. In this latter indication, dexamethasone was shown to improve neurological outcome, indeed mortality in Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis.